Unit 8 is devoted to the treatment of the Participle in Greek.
1. Participles: formation;
2. Participles: Uses (Attributive and Circumstantial);
3. The adjective πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν.
1. τοὺς γέροντας λιποῦσαι ἥκομεν σύμπαντας τοὺς ῥήτορας τοὺς κεκλοφότας δώρων γραψόμεναι.
After having left the old men, we have come in order to indict all the orators, (the ones) who have stolen, of bribery.
2. θυσίᾱν ἀγάγωμεν θεοῖς τοῖς Ἀθηναίους ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ μάχῃ σώσᾱσιν ὅπως καὶ νῦν ἐθέλωσι πάντες οἱ θεοὶ τὴν δημοκρατίᾱν φυλάττειν.
Let us perform a sacrifice to the gods who saved the Athenians in that battle in order that even now all the gods may wish to guard the democracy.
3. ἀγγέλους πέμψειαν ἅτε πρῶτοι λύ̄σαντες τήν γ’ εἰρήνην.
If only they would send messengers, since they broke the peace first.
4. ἐκεῖνοι οἱ κακοὶ οἱ τὸν ἀγαθόν τε καὶ σοφὸν διδάσκαλον εἰς θάνατον ἀγαγόντες βλαβήσονταί τοι ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν οἷα αἰσχρὰ πρά̄ττοντες.
Those bad men who led the good and wise teacher to death will be harmed you know by the gods since they do shameful things.
5. ὁ τά τε τῶν ἄλλων κλέπτων καὶ ἅμα πείθων σύμπαντας τοὺς νεᾱνίᾱς κακὰ πρά̄ττειν καὶ μὴ τοῖς θεοῖς θύ̄ων ἔβλαπτε τὴν πᾶσαν χώρᾱν ἢ οὔ;
The man who was stealing the things of others and at the same time persuading all the young men to do bad things and who was not sacrificing to the gods — was he harming the whole land or not?
6. θύ̄σωμεν οἷα σεσωσμέναι.
Let us sacrifice since we (fem.) have been saved.
7. ἐπειδὴ οἱ πολέμιοι τὴν οὐ φυλαχθεῖσαν γέφῡραν ἔλῡσαν, ἅπαντες οἱ ὁπλῖται τὰ ὅπλα ἔλιπον ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ὡς νῦν γ’ εἰρήνην ἄξοντες.
After the enemy destroyed the bridge that was not guarded, all the hoplites left their weapons in the plain in order to (as they claimed) keep peace now at least.
8. ἐν τῇ εὖ πολῑτευομένῃ χώρᾱͅ οὔτοι ἦρξε τοῦ δήμου ὁ στρατός, ἀλλ’ εἴ γ’ ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων βλάπτοιντο οἱ πολῖται, ἅπαντες, τοὺς γέροντας ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις λιπόντες, ὑπὸ τῶν στρατηγῶν ἐτάττοντο ὡς τοὺς εἰς τὴν γῆν ἥκοντας φυλαξόμενοι.
In the well-governed land the army did not indeed rule the people, but if the citizens were (ever) harmed by the enemy, everyone, leaving the old men in the houses, was stationed for battle by the generals in order to guard against those who had come into the land.
9. τὰ̄ς μὴ δουλευούσας διδάξει δὴ τὰ βιβλία τὰ ὑπ’ ἀγαθῶν ποιητῶν γραφόμενα.
The books written by the good poets will teach in fact women who are not slaves.
10. ὁ στρατηγός, καίπερ τάξᾱς τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς παρὰ τὴν θάλατταν, ὅμως οὐκ ἤθελεν ἐκείνους ἕξ στάδια εἰς μάχην ἀγαγεῖν.
Although the general had stationed the soldiers beside the sea, nevertheless he was unwilling to lead them for six stades into battle.
11. δῶρα δὴ λελοίπαμεν ἐκείνῳ γε τῷ ποιητῇ τῷ περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς γεγραφότι. συμπά̄σᾱς γὰρ ἀγαθὰ πρά̄ττειν δεδίδαχεν.
We have in fact left gifts for that poet, at least, who has written about virtue. For he has taught all (the women) to do good things.
12. χρήματα ἐκείνοις τοῖς κακοῖς ῥήτορσι λιπών, ἔπειτα τὸν στρατὸν ἤγαγον εἰς τὴν χώρᾱν τὴν τῶν Ἑλλήνων τῶν οὐχ ὑπὸ στρατιωτῶν φυλαττομένων.
After having left money for those bad orators, I then led the army into the land of those Greeks who were not being guarded by the soldiers.
13. ἀρετή τοι τὸ πᾶσαν χώρᾱν σῷζον, ὦ γέρον.
Old man, virtue, you know, is the thing saving the whole land.
14. οὐ δίκαια πάντα τά γε θεοῖς πεπρᾱγμένα;
Are not all the things that have been done by gods just?
15. ἦγεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ὡς δὴ μάχης ἀρξόμενος.
He led the soldiers into the plain in order to begin a battle in fact (as he said).
16. εἰ καλὰ πρά̄ττοις, ὦ ἄδελφε, πέμψαιμ’ ἂν τῆς νυκτὸς ἐκεῖνα τὰ ζῷα τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ γέροντος τυθέντα.
If you should do noble things, brother, I would send during the night those animals that have been sacrificed by the old man.
17. ἐκεῖνος ὁ ῥήτωρ ὁ αἰσχρός, καίπερ δῶρα τε πεπομφὼς παρὰ πάντας τοὺς ἀδίκους καὶ ἅμα τὸν δῆμον πείσᾱς λῦσαι τὴν εἰρήνην, ὅμως ἀντὶ τοῦ δικαίως βλαβῆναι ἠθέλησεν ὑπ’ ἁπάντων τῶν ἐλευθέρων σῴζεσθαι.
That shameful orator, although having both sent bribes to all the unjust men and at the same time having persuaded the people to destroy the peace, nevertheless wished, instead of being justly harmed, to be saved by all the free men.
18. ἅτε κακῶς πρά̄ττουσαι, ὦ φίλαι, μήτε εἰρήνην ἄγωμεν μήτε κακοῖς δουλεύωμεν.
Friends (fem.), since we [=women] are faring badly, let us neither keep peace nor be slaves to bad men.
19. τῶν φίλων χάριν οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι, ὑπὸ κακῶν ῥητόρων πεισθέντες, ἄρχειν ἤθελον πᾱσῶν τῶν γε νήσων, καὶ ἔπειτα αἱ μὲν χρήματ’ ἔπεμπον, αἱ δὲ μὴ πειθόμεναι ἐβλάβησαν.
After having been persuaded by bad orators, the Athenians were willing to rule all the islands for the sake of their friends, and thereupon while some (of the islands) used to send money, others who did not obey were harmed.
20. ἐκείνῃ τῇ νυκτὶ τὴν πάντων ἐλευθερίᾱν φυλάξαντες, ὦ Ἕλληνες, νῦν δή, καίπερ εἰς μάχην τεταγμένοι, οὔτε πείσεσθε τοῖς στρατηγοῖς τοῖς ἅπαντας σῶσαι ἐθέλουσιν οὔτε σώσετε τὴν χώρᾱν;
After having guarded the freedom of everyone on that night, O Greeks, will you now in fact neither obey the generals who wish to save everyone nor will you save the land, even though you have been stationed into battle?
21. ἐπέμφθης εἰς ἀγορά̄ν, ὦ αἰσχρὲ ῥήτορ, ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου κλοπῆς γραφησόμενος.
You were sent to the market place, (you) shameful orator, in order that you be indicted of theft by the people.
22. ἀγαθὰ βιβλία τοῖς φίλοις λιπόμενος, ἐτάφη ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπὸ τῶν νεᾱνιῶν τῶν εὖ καὶ καλῶς διδαχθέντων.
Having left good books to his friends, the poet was buried by the young men who had been taught well and nobly.
23. τὰ̄ς οἶνον κλεψά̄σᾱς γραψάμεναι κλοπῆς, ὦ ἀγαθαί, φυλάξομεν τά̄ς γ’ οἰκίᾱς.
Good (ladies), having indicted the wine thieves (fem.) of theft, we will guard the houses.
24. νῦν τοι δῶρά γε πέμποιμεν παρὰ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς τοὺς τὸν στρατὸν εἰς μάχην τεταχότας. ἄνευ γὰρ ἀρετῆς οἱ στρατηγοὶ λύ̄σουσι τὴν δημοκρατίᾱν τούς τε δικαίους βλάψαντες καὶ ἄδικά τε καὶ αἰσχρὰ πρά̄ξαντες.
Now, you know, if only we send gifts at least to the good men who have stationed the army into battle. For without virtue, the generals will destroy the democracy after having harmed the just men and done both unjust and shameful things.
25. ἧκόν τοι εἰς τὴν νῆσον ὡς παύσοντες τὸν πόλεμον, ἤθελον δὲ κλέψαι τά̄ς τ’ αἶγας καὶ τὸν οἶνον, τὰ δῶρα ἃ τῇ γε θεῷ ἐπεπόμφεμεν.
They had come, you know, to the island in order to stop the war (they claimed), but they wished to steal both the goats and the wine, the gifts which we had sent to the goddess.
26. κωλύ̄σωμεν δὴ ἐκεῖνον τὸν γέροντα τοὺς νεᾱνίᾱς διδάσκειν οἷα τὸν οἶνον ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς κλέψαντα;
Are we indeed to prevent that old man from teaching the young men because he stole the wine from the house?
27. ἆρα πέντε ἡμερῶν ἥξετ’ εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν γῆν τοὺς πολί̄τᾱς τὴν ῥητορικὴν διδάξουσαι; ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἂν διδάξαιτ’ ἐκείνους ὑπὸ τῶν γε γερόντων φυλαττόμεναι.
Will you come into that land within five days in order to teach the citizens rhetoric? But you might not teach them if you (fem.) are guarded by the old men at any rate.
28. ἐν τῇ νήσῳ λειφθέντες ἅτε τὴν δημοκρατίᾱν λελυκότες, ἔπειτα ὅμως, ἀργύριον κλέψαντες, πάντας τοὺς εὖ πεπολῑτευμένους ἔβλαπτον.
Having been left on the island since they have destroyed the democracy, nevertheless they then, after having stolen money, were harming all the citizens who were well-governed.
29. ἐν οἴνῳ τοι καὶ ἐκεῖνος ὁ σοφὸς αἰσχρὰ ἔπρᾱττεν· λιπὼν γὰρ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἐχόρευε περὶ τὴν οἰκίᾱν.
In wine, you know, even that wise man used to do shameful things. For having left his brothers, he used to dance around the house.
(i.e. Under the influence of wine)
30. θεοῖς ταῖς τὴν γῆν πεφυλαχυίαις ἄγοιτ’ ἂν θυσίᾱν ἅτ’ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ μάχῃ σωθεῖσαι.
You might (OR: could) perform a sacrifice to the goddesses who have guarded the land since you were saved in that battle.
31. οἵ γε ῥήτορες ἔπειθον τὸν στρατηγόν, καίπερ εὖ τάξαντα τοὺς ὁπλί̄τᾱς, μήτε τὸν ἄλλον στρατὸν ἀγαγεῖν παρὰ θάλατταν μήτε τὴν γῆν φυλάττειν.
The orators, at least, were persuading the general neither to lead the other army to the sea nor to guard the land, even though the hoplites were well stationed.
32. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγαθῶν διδασκόμενοι, ὦ ἀδελφοί, δώρων γράψεσθε τοὺς ῥήτορας τοὺς τοῖς μὴ ἀγαθοῖς πειθομένους.
My brothers, since (OR: if) you are taught by good men, you will indict of bribery the orators, the ones who obey men who are not good.
33. μάχης ἀρξάμενοι βλάψαιμεν ἂν τοὺς πολεμίους οἷα τὴν εἰρήνην λύ̄σαντας.
If we should start a battle, we would harm the enemy since they destroyed the peace.
34. ἐά̄ν γε πάντα τὸν οἶνον κλέψῃς, ὦ νεᾱνίᾱ, βλαβήσει ἅτε ἄδικα πρά̄ξᾱς.
Young man, if you steal all the wine, you will be harmed since you will have done [lit. did] unjust things.
35. τούς γε πολεμίους βλάψᾱσαι ἔπειτα θῡσόμεθα τῇ θεῷ ἅτε φυλαττούσῃ ἁπάντων τῶν πολῑτῶν καὶ τὰ σώματα καὶ τὰ χρήματα καὶ τὰς ψυχάς.
If we harm the enemy, at any rate, we will then sacrifice to the goddess because she is guarding the bodies, money and souls of all the citizens.
36. εἰ τῷ ῥήτορι τῷ λόγους περὶ πολέμου γράφοντι ἐπείθεσθ’, ὦ Ἕλληνες, εὖ ἂν ἐφυλάττεσθε τοὺς ἐν τῇ μάχῃ τὰ ὅπλα λιπόντας.
If you, O Greeks, were obeying the orator writing speeches about war, you would [now] be guarding against the men who left their weapons in the battle.
1. Although being harmed by the young men, the citizens refused to dissolve the democracy, and the general led the soldiers into the country in order that he might rule the island.
καίπερ βλαπτόμενοι ὑπό γε τῶν νεανιῶν, οὐκ ἤθελον οἱ πολῖται τὴν δημοκρατίαν λῦσαι. ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς ἤγαγε τοὺς στρατιώτας εἰς τὴν χῶραν ὅπως τῆς νήσου ἄρχοι.
2. If they are harmed in battle, the enemy will be willing to stop the war.
ἐὰν βλαβῶσιν ἐν μάχῃ, οἱ πολεμίοι ἐθελήσουσι παῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον.
3. If, you know, we had left the general and all the hoplites there, we would not have stopped the battle.
εἴ τοι τὸν στρατηγὸν καὶ πάντας τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἐλίπομεν ἐκεῖ, τὴν μάχην οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσαμεν.
4. Let us lead the stolen goat into the house of the soldiers who were sent into battle.
ἀγαγώμεν τὸν κλαπέντα αἶγα εἰς τὴν τῶν στρατιωτῶν οἰκίαν τῶν εἰς τὴν μάχην πεμφθέντων (ταχθέντων).