Unit 9 introduces the Contract Verbs and a few more of the grammatical functions of the Cases.
1. Contract Verbs (stems in –α and –ε);
2. Demonstratives (ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε and οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο);
3. Subjective/Objective Genitive;
4. Dative of Manner and Respect.
1. (a) εἰ ἀδικοίης, νῑκῷο ἄν. If you should do wrong, you would be conquered.
(b) ἐὰ̄ν ταῦτα ποιῆτε, τῑμᾶσθε. If you do these things, you are honored.
(c) εἰ τόδε ποιοῖμεν, νῑκῷημεν ἄν. If we should do this, we would conquer.
(d) μὴ ἀδικοῦσα, οὐκ ἂν νῑκῷο. If you (fem.) do not do wrong, you would not be conquered.
(e) μὴ ἀδικῶν, οὐκ ἂν νῑκῷο. If you (masc.) do not do wrong, you would not be conquered
(f) τόδε ποιοῦντες, νῑκῷμεν ἄν. If we (should) do this, we would conquer.
2. (a) εἰ τοῦτο ἐποίουν, ἐτῑμώμην ἄν. If I were doing this, I would be honored [now].
(b) εἰ οὗτοι τούσδε ἠδίκουν, οὐκ ἂν ἐτῑμῶντο. If these men were wronging those men, they would not be honored [now].
(c) εἰ μὴ θυσίᾱν ποιοῖτο, οὐκ ἂν νῑκῷ. If he should not perform a sacrifice, he would not win.
3. ταῦτα μὲν γέγραπται, ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, περὶ τῶν ἀγαθοῦ ἀνθρώπου τρόπων τοῖς ποιηταῖς τοῖς εὖ τε καὶ καλῶς διδάξᾱσι πάντας γε τοὺς πολί̄τᾱς, τάδε δὲ γράφουσιν οἱ ῥήτορες οἱ νῦν πείθοντες τὸν δῆμον.
These (preceding) things, Athenians, have been written about the manners (character) of the good human being by the poets who taught all the citizens well and nobly, while the orators who are now persuading the people are writing the following.
4. καλόν τοι τὸ ταύτης τῆς γῆς ὕδωρ, κακοὶ δὲ οἱ ἄνθρωποι.
The water of this land is fine, you know, but (its) people are bad.
5. τάττοιντ’ ἂν ἢ παρὰ τῇ γεφύρᾱͅ ἢ ὑπὲρ τὸ πεδίον οἱ ὁπλῖται οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ λειφθέντες ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ.
The hoplites that were left on the island by the general could be stationed either beside the bridge or above the plain.
6. οὔτε καλὸν οὔτ’ ἀγαθὸν τὰ τῶν ἄλλων κλέπτειν. ἀδικοῦντες γὰρ οὐ τῑμῶνται ὑπὸ τῶν πολῑτῶν οὗτοι, οἳ ἂν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων κλοπῆς γράφωνται.
To steal the things of others is neither noble nor good. For when they do wrong, they are not honored by the citizens, if anyone is indicted of theft by the orators.
7. εἰ τάδε τὰ ὅπλα εἰς ταύτην γε τὴν νῆσον μὴ ἐπέμφθη, οὔτ’ ἂν μάχῃ ἐνῑκήσατ’ ἐκείνους τοὺς πολεμίους τοὺς βλάπτοντας τὴν χώρᾱν οὔτε νῦν θυσίᾱς ἐποιεῖσθε ὡς σωθέντες.
If these arms here had not been sent to this island, you neither would have defeated in battle that enemy who was harming (your) land, nor would you now be performing sacrifices because you were saved.
8. καίπερ εὖ δεδιδαγμένος, ὅμως αἰσχρὰ ἔπρᾱττες.
Although you had been taught well, you were nevertheless doing shameful things.
9. τοὺς εἰρήνην ἄγοντας τῑμῶσι πάντες ἅτε δίκαια πρά̄ττοντας.
Everyone honors those who keep the peace since they do just things.
10. οὐκ ἐτί̄μων οἱ πολῖται ἐκεῖνον οἷα τά τε τοῦ δήμου κλέπτοντα καὶ πάντας ἀδικοῦντα.
The citizens were not honoring that man because he was both stealing the things of the people and wronging everyone.
11. τῆσδε τῆς νυκτὸς χορεύσουσι πέντε τῶν χορευτῶν τῶν πεμφθέντων παρὰ τὴν θάλατταν εἰς τὸ τῆς θεοῦ ἱερόν. ἥκουσι γὰρ οἱ ὁπλῖται οἵ γ’ ἀγαθοὶ μετὰ τὴν τῶν βαρβάρων νί̄κην τοὺς θεοὺς τῑμήσοντες.
Five of the dancers who were sent beside the sea into the temple of the goddess will dance during this night. For the hoplites have come, the ones, at any rate, who are good, after the victory of the barbarians in order to honor the gods.
12. ἀγαθὸν μὲν τούτοις ἡ νί̄κης ἐλπίς, κακὸν δὲ ὁ τῶν γε πολεμίων φόβος.
While the hope of victory is good for these men, the fear of the enemy, at any rate, is bad.
13. ἐτί̄μων οἱ γέροντες τοῦτον τὸν ῥήτορα, ὅς γε ἄνευ τοῦ γράμματα γράφειν τοὺς νεᾱνίᾱς λόγοις διδάσκοι περὶ τῶν τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίᾱς πρᾱγμάτων. οὕτως γὰρ πεπαιδευμένοι ἦρχον ἁπᾱσῶν τῶν νήσων.
The old men honored this orator, whoever, at any rate, without writing down letters, taught the young men by speeches about the affairs of the Council and the Assembly. For (after) having been educated in this way they ruled all the islands.
14. οἱ μὲν ἐλεύθεροι πολῑτεύονται, οἱ δ’ ἄλλοι ὑπ’ αἰσχρῶν ἄρχονται.
While free men are governed, others are ruled by shameful men.
15. λιπόντες τὰ ὅπλα λόγοις κακὸν ποιῶμεν τοὺς δικαίους;
Having left (our)´ weapons, are we to do a bad thing to the just with speeches?
16. τὴν γνώμην βλάπτει οἶνος ἄνευ ὕδατος.
Wine without water impairs the judgment.
17. ἄλλα τε ζῷα καὶ καλὰ̄ς αἶγας εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀγαγόντες καὶ θυσίᾱς ποιησόμεθα καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν νύκτα χορεύσομεν τοὺς θεοὺς τῑμῶντες ἅτε τὸν στρατὸν σώσαντας.
After having led both fine goats and other animals into the temple we shall both perform sacrifices and dance the whole night honoring the gods because they saved the army.
18. ἐτάττοντο οἱ ὁπλῖται ἐν τῷδε τῷ ὑπὲρ τῆς ὁδοῦ πεδίῳ. καίτοι οἱ ἄλλοι ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς χώρᾱς ἐπέμποντο εἰς ἐκείνᾱς τὰ̄ς νήσους ἐν αἷς πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ὑπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἠδικεῖτο.
The hoplites were being stationed in this plain beyond the road. And further, the others were being sent out of this land to those islands in which everyone (lit. human being) was being wronged by the enemy.
19. καὶ οἱ κατὰ γῆς τοῖς φίλοις τετί̄μηνται. ἀθάνατος γάρ τοι ἡ τῶν ἀγαθῶν δόξα.
Even those beneath the earth have been honored by their friends. For the reputation of the good is immortal, you know.
20. ὦ Ἕλληνες στρατιῶται, νῑκώμεθ’ ὑπὸ τῶνδε τῶν δούλων; ἐὰ̄ν γὰρ μὴ νῑκήσωμεν, λυθήσεται ἡ δημοκρατίᾱ. ταύτης οὖν τῆς ἡμέρᾱς μήτε νῑκηθῶμεν μήτ’ εἰρήνην πρὸ τῆς νί̄κης ποιησώμεθα.
Greek soldiers, are we to be conquered by these slaves? For if we do not win, the democracy will be destroyed. During this day, therefore, let us neither be conquered nor let us make peace before victory.
21. ὀνόματι μὲν εἰρήνην ἐκεῖνοι ἐποιοῦντο, ἔργῳ δὲ ὅ γε πόλεμος οὐκ ἐπαύετο.
In name they were making peace, while by deed the war, at any rate, was not being stopped.
22. πέπεμψαί τοι ὑπὲρ τὸ πεδίον, ὦ νεᾱνίᾱ, ὅπως τοὺς βαρβάρους σὺν ἀγαθῷ δαίμονι νῑκᾷς.
Young man, you have been sent, you know, beyond (above) the plain so that you may conquer the barbarians with the [help] of the good divinity.
23. γνώμῃ μὲν καὶ ῥητορικῇ ἱκανὸς οὗτος, ἐμπειρίᾱͅ δὲ τῇ τῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίᾱς πρᾱγμάτων οὔ.
In judgment and in rhetoric this man is capable, but in experience of the affairs of the assembly he is not.
24. πρὸ τῆς μάχης ἐκείνᾱς τὰ̄ς αἶγας τὰ̄ς καλὰ̄ς θεῷ τῷ τὸν δῆμον σώσαντι ἐθῡσάμεθα. τούτῳ γὰρ τῷ τρόπῳ ἐσῴζοντο οἵ θ’ ἡγεμόνες καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι.
Before the battle we had those fine goats sacrificed to the god who saved the people. For in this manner both the leaders and the others were being saved.
25. ὦ ἄδελφε, τοῦτόν γε μήτε κακῶς ποιοίης μήτε τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ βλάπτοις κλέπτων τὰ χρήματα.
Brother, if only you would not do bad (things) to this man nor harm [him] in this way stealing (his) property.
26. καλὸς καὶ τοῖς πάλαι καὶ τοῖς νῦν ὁ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς ἀγών. ἆθλον γὰρ τούτου τοῦ ἀγῶνος βίος ἀγαθός.
The contest (struggle) over freedom is noble, both to the men of old and to those of today. For the prize of this struggle (contest) is a good life.
27. ἐν ὕδατι γράφεις τοὺς τούτων λόγους;
Are you writing the speeches of these [men] in water?
28. ἄλογον δὴ τὸ μήτε μάχης ἄρξασθαι μήτε τοὺς φίλους φυλάξαι, ἐὰ̄ν ὑπό γε τῶνδε τῶν βαρβάρων ἀδικῆσθε.
It is in fact unreasonable neither to begin a battle nor to guard (one’s) friends if you are wronged by these barbarians.
29. εἰ ταῦτ’ ἐποιοῦ, οὐκ ἂν ἐνῑκῶ.
If you were doing these things, you would not be conquered (now).
30. πεῖράν γ’ ἐποιεῖσθε.
You were making an attempt at least.
1. Friend, may you not, honored by those unjust young men, do bad things to these short old men.
εἰ γάρ, ὦ φίλε, μὴ κακὰ ποιοίης τούτους τοὺς μικροὺς γέροντας τιμώμενος ὑπό γ’ ἐκείνων τῶν νεανιῶν τῶν ἀδίκων.
2. It is unreasonable, you know, to do shameful things; whoever without justice wrongs others, that one will justly be harmed by the gods.
ἄλογόν τοι αἰσχρὰ ποιεῖν. ὃς ἂν ἄνευ (τῆς) δίκης τοὺς ἄλλους ἀδικῇ, οὗτος δικαιῶς βλαβήσεται ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν.
3. Are we neither to honor nor do good to these women who have guarded those houses in silence?
ταύτας μήτε τιμῶμεν μῆτε καλῶς ποιῶμεν, αἳ σιγῇ ἐκείνας τὰς οἰκίας πεφυλάχασιν;
4. Before those contests the Greeks used to sacrifice both goats and other animals to these goddesses in order that they might not be conquered.
πρὸ ἐκείνων τῶν ἀγώνων οἱ Ἕλληνες ἄλλα τε ζῷα καὶ τὰς αἶγας ἔθυον ταύταις ταῖς θεαῖς ὅπως μὴ νικῷντο.