Unit 10 covers the following areas:
1. Third Declension Nouns (μήτηρ, γένος, πόλις, βασιλεύς);
2. Third Declension Adjectives;
3. Contract Verbs (-ο); verbs with Contract Futures;
4. Result Clauses;
5. Compound Verbs.
1. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι ταῖς τῇ ἀληθείᾱͅ εὖ πολῑτευομέναις οὐχ ὁ δῆμος ἀλλ’ ὁ νόμος βασιλεύς· πᾶς γὰρ πολί̄της τοῖς νόμοις πειθόμενος δίκαια πρά̄ττει ὥστε σῷζεσθαι τήν γε πόλιν ἐκ κινδύ̄νων τε καὶ φόβων.
In the truly well-governed cities, not the people but the law is king. For every citizen, obeying the laws, does just things so as for the city to be saved from both dangers and fears.
2. τῇ βασιλέως θυγατρὶ ἐδήλου ὁ ποιητὴς τὰ ποιήματα τὰ περὶ τῆς φύσεως γεγραμμένα.
The poet used to show to the king’s daughter the poems that had been written about nature.
3. ὦ πάτερ, ἐξενῑκήθησάν τε σύμπαντες οἱ πολέμιοι ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν τῶν εὐγενῶν καὶ ἡ εὐδαίμων πόλις ἐσώθη. νῑκήσᾱς γὰρ ταῦτ’ ἀπήγγειλε καὶ τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾱͅ ὁ στρατηγὸς ὁ μετὰ τὴν μάχην εἰς τὴν Ἀθηναίων πόλιν ἀποπεμφθείς. μενεῖ οὖν οὗτος ἐν πόλει μετὰ γε τῶν φίλων ὡς θυσίᾱς τοῖς θεοῖς ἄξων.
Father, all the enemy was defeated by the well-born soldiers and the fortunate city was saved. For after having conquered, the general who was sent away into the city of the Athenians after the battle reported these things both in the council and in the assembly. He will therefore remain in [the] city with his friends in order to perform sacrifices to the gods.
4. εἰ ἄνευ ἐκείνων τῶν ἱππέων τῶν εὐδαιμόνων μὴ ἤθελον εἰς μάχην τάξασθαι οἱ ὁπλῖται ὑπέρ γε τοῦ τοὺς πολεμίους φυλάξασθαι, ἡ τῆς πόλεως ἀρχὴ ἀληθῶς ἂν ἐλύ̄ετο. ταύτην δὴ τὴν πόλιν ἀξιοῖμέν γ’ ἀρχῆς.
If without those fortunate horsemen the hoplites were refusing to be stationed into battle beyond the guarding against the enemy, the rule (empire) of the city would be truly destroyed. If only we deemed this city worthy of rule (empire).
5. ἀγαθόν τοι χρῆμα ἡ ἀρετὴ τοῖς γ’ εὖ πεπαιδευμένοις.
Virtue is a good possession,you know, at least to those who have been educated well.
6. ὦ σῶφρον θύγατερ, μὴ ἀδικήσῃς πεισθεῖσα τοῖς τούτου τοῦ κακοῦ ἱππέως λόγοις. εἰ γάρ ποτ’ αἰσχρὰ ποιήσειας, οὔτοι τῑμῷτο ἂν ἡ μήτηρ.
My wise daughter, do not do wrong, having been persuaded by the speeches of this bad horseman. For if ever you should do shameful things, your mother would not indeed be honored.
7. γράψαι ὁ Δημοσθένης μακρὸν λόγον περὶ τῶν ἐν πολέμῳ παθῶν τῶν φοβερῶν ὣστε τοὺς πολί̄τᾱς μὴ λῦσαι τὴν εἰρήνην, καίπερ τοῦτ’ ἐθέλοντας ποιῆσαι. εἰρήνην γὰρ ἄγοντες σῷζοιντ’ ἄν.
If only Demosthenes would write a long speech about the frightful sufferings in war so as for the citizens not to destroy the peace, even though they are wishing to do this. For if they should keep peace they would be saved.
8. τὰ χρήματ’ ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις λιποῦσαι αἱ σώφρονες ἔμενον ἐκεῖ παρὰ τῇ θαλάττῃ φυλαξόμεναι τοὺς πολεμίους.
After leaving their goods (money) in the houses, the prudent (temperate) women were staying there beside the sea in order to guard against the enemy.
9. οὕτω φοβερὸν τόδε γε τὸ πάθος ὥστε Δημοσθένη ἐθέλειν τελευτῆσαι. τοῦτον δὴ ἄ̄θλου ἀξιώσωμέν ποτε τὸν αἰσχρὰ πρά̄ξαντα;
So frightful is this suffering as for Demosthenes to wish to die. Are we in fact ever to deem worthy of a prize this man who did shameful things?
10. ἀληθῶς δὴ εὐδαίμων ἡ τοῖς γε τῆς πόλεως νόμοις πειθομένη καὶ ἅμα τόν τε πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα τῑμῶσα καὶ τοῖς θεοῖς θυσίᾱς ἄγουσα καὶ μὴ ἄδικά ποτε πεπρᾱχυῖα. αὕτη γάρ τοι καὶ θεοῖς καὶ ἀνθρώποις οὕτω φίλη ὥσθ’ ὑφ’ ἁπάντων τῑμᾶται.
Truly happy, in fact, is the woman who obeys the laws of the city and who at the same time honors both (her) mother and father, who performs sacrifices to the gods and who has never done unjust things. For this woman, you know, is so dear to both gods and men that she is honored by all.
11. πότε ὑπέρ γε τούτων τῶν πόλεων τῷ τε πατρὶ τῶν θεῶν καὶ τῇ γῇ, μητρὶ καὶ θεῶν καὶ ἀνθρώπων, θύ̄σει ὁ ἱερεὺς ὁ ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐκκαλούμενος;
When will the priest, the one called out from the city, sacrifice on behalf of these cities to both the father of the gods and to Earth, mother of both gods and men?
12. τόν γε Σωκράτη τῑμᾶσθαι ἀξιοῦμεν οἷα τούς τε πολί̄τᾱς τὴν ἀληθῆ ἀρετὴν ἐκδιδάξαντα καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἀληθῶς εὐδαίμονα ποιοῦντα.
We consider Socrates worthy of being honored because he (has) thoroughly taught the citizens true virtue and making the city truly happy.
13. ἀγγείλω τῇ ἐκκλησίᾱͅ πάντα τὰ πάθη τὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν οὓς ἐξῆγεν ὁ στρατηγός; ταῦτα γὰρ τῇ πά̄σῃ πόλει δηλοῦσα τὸν πόλεμον ἂν παύοιμι. ταῦτ’ οὖν ἀγγελῶ.
Am I to announce in the assembly all the sufferings of the men whom the general led out? For if I (should) make these things clear to the whole city I would stop the war. I will therefore announce these things.
14. πότε τὴν θυγατέρα τῇ θεῷ ἔθῡσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ὅπως ἐξαγάγοι τὸν στρατόν;
When did the king sacrifice his daughter to the goddess with the result that he might lead the army?
15. τῷ τὸν βασιλέᾱ μὴ θῦσαι τῇ θεῷ τὴν θυγατέρα ἐκεκώλῡτο ὁ πόλεμος ὥστ’ εἰρήνην ἤγομεν.
By the king’s not sacrificing his daughter to the goddess the war had been prevented with the result that we were keeping the peace.
16. οὔθ’ ὁ χρῡσὸς μένει οὔθ’ ὁ ἄργυρος, ἀλλὰ μενεῖ ἥ γε δόξα τῶν εὐγενῶν τῶν τοῖς ποιηταῖς δεδιδαγμένων τὰ ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν ἔργα.
Neither gold nor silver endures (abides), but the reputation of (the) noble men who have been taught by the poets the deeds of good men will endure.
17. τοῖς αἰξὶ τοῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τεθυμένοις τῑμῶνται οἱ θεοὶ ὥστε σῷζουσι τὴν πόλιν. ἄνευ γὰρ θυσιῶν ἐχθροὶ οἱ θεοὶ καὶ καλοῦσι τοὺς πολεμίους εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν μάχῃ νῑκήσοντας.
The gods are honored by the goats that have been sacrificed in the temple with the result that they are saving the city. For without sacrifices the gods are hostile and will call (beckon) the enemies into the land in order that they conquer in battle.
18. ἅτ’ ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρᾱς τελευτήσων τὸν βίον, ὁ Σωκράτης ἐδήλου τοῖς νεᾱνίαις τὰ τῆς ἀρετῆς γένη.
Since his life was about to end during that day, Socrates was showing the young men the kinds of virtue.
19. ἄλλῳ τοι γένει ἀνθρώπων ἄλλο καλόν. νόμῳ γὰρ ποιεῖ πᾶς ἃ ἂν ποιῇ.
To one class of men, you know, one thing is noble, to another [class of men] another [thing]. [ALT. To different classes of men different things are noble.] For all do whatever they do by law.
20. ὦ εὔδαιμον Σώκρατες, τὴν ἀρετῆς φύσιν τοῖς φίλοις δηλοῖς; ἐὰ̄ν γὰρ τὴν ἀρετὴν εὖ δηλοῖς, οὔτοι ἀδικήσουσιν, ἀλλ’ εἰ μὴ τοῦτ’ εὖ δηλοῖς, κακὰ ἂν πρά̄ττοιεν. καλῶς δὴ ποιεῖς ἅπαντα τὰ ἀγαθὰ δηλῶν.
Happy Socrates, are you showing your friends the nature of virtue? For if you show virtue well, they will indeed not do wrong, but if you should not show this well, they would do bad things. You do well (nobly), in fact, when you show all the good things.
21. μὴ πρὸ τοῦ τέλους τοῦ ἀγῶνος νῑκηθείς, ἄ̄θλου ἠξιώθης ἄν.
If you had not been defeated before the end of the contest, you would have been thought worthy of a prize.
22. εἰρήνην καλεῖς δὴ τὸ πολέμου τέλος;
Do you in fact call peace the end of war?
23. τοῖς τε πατράσι καὶ ταῖς μητράσι τῶν στρατιωτῶν τῶν ἐν τῷδε τῷ πεδίῳ τεθαμμένων οὐχ ἱκανοὶ οἵ γε λόγοι οἱ ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος δηλούμενοι περὶ τῆς τε καλῆς δόξης καὶ τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς τῆς νῦν σεσωμένης.
To both the fathers and mothers of the soldiers that have been buried in this plain the speeches delivered (shown) by the orator about the fine reputation and the freedom that has now been saved are not sufficient.
24. πότε τελευτήσει τὰ τῶν γε διδασκάλων πάθη;
When will the sufferings of the teachers at least end?
25. ἅτε αἰσχρὰ πρά̄ξᾱσαν ἀπέπεμψεν ὁ ἀνὴρ τὴν θυγατέρα ἐξ ὀφθαλμῶν.
Because she had done shameful things, the man sent his daughter away out of his sight [lit. eyes].
26. ἀγαθὸν δὴ τῇ πόλει τὸ τόν γε Σωκράτη τοὺς νεᾱνίᾱς ἐκπαιδεύειν.
Socrates’ thoroughly teaching the young men is in fact good for the city.
27. τοὺς ἐν τέλει δώρων γραψώμεθα οἷα παρὰ τοὺς νόμους τὰ τοῦ δήμου κλέψαντας ὥστ’ ἐνῑκᾶτο ἡ πόλις.
Let us indict those in office of bribery since they stole the things of the people contrary to the laws with the result that the city was conquered.
28. καίπερ οἶνον κεκλοφότες, εἰς δίκην ὅμως οὐ κληθήσονται.
Although having stolen wine, they will nevertheless not be summoned (called) to trial (justice).
1. Let us order the priest to leave all the goats for the mother of the king in order that she may sacrifice on behalf of the soldiers who won.
τόν γε ἱερεὰ κελεύσωμεν πάντας τὰς αἶγας λιπεῖν τῇ τοῦ βασιλέως μητρὶ ὅπως θύῃ ὑπὲρ τῶν στρατιωτῶν τῶν νικησάντων.
2. Do you think whoever is not conquered in the contests worthy of a prize or a crown?
τοῦτον ἄθλου ἀξιοῖς ἢ στεφάνου ὃς ἂν οὐ νικηθῇ ἐν τοῖς ἀγοῦσιν;
3. The horsemen were so well taught by the old men as to be thought worthy of prizes and gifts in all the contests.
οὕτως ἐκεδιδάχθησαν οἱ ἱππεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν γερόντων ὥστε ἀξιωθῆναι ἄθλων καὶ δώρων ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἀγοῦσιν.
4. By Socrates’ being willing to die on behalf of virtue we are taught to do good.
τῷ τὸν Σωκράτη ἐθέλειν ὑπὲρ ἀρετῆς τελευτᾶν καλῶς ποιεῖν διδασκόμεθα.
5. The fathers of the soldiers called out of the city fell into order of battle so that at least the small houses were saved.
οἱ τὼν στρατιωτῶν πατέρες τῶν (ἐκ) τῆς πόλεως ἐκκληθέντων εἰς μάχην ἐτάξοντο ὥστε αἵ γε μικραὶ οἰκίαι ἐσώθησαν.