Unit 11 is primarily devoted to the discussion of the Imperative in Greek, but it also includes some other very important grammatical concepts.
1. The Imperative Mood (Commands and Prohibitions);
2. Deponent Verbs (Middle, Passive, Partial);
3. Temporal Clauses;
4. Genitive Absolute;
5. The adjective/pronoun αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό
1. τοῦ αὐτοῦ γε ῥήτορος ἐκ τῆς νήσου ἥκοντος αὐτοὶ ἠκούσαμεν τάδε· Ἀκούετε, ὦ πολῖται. ἐπειδὰν οἱ ταύτης τῆς γυναικὸς φονεῖς εἰς ἀγορὰ̄ν ἥκωσι τὰ χρήματα λαβόντες, φόνου δίκην γράψομαί πως αὐτοὺς πάντας.
We ourselves heard the following from the same orator who has come from the island. Hear, citizens. When the murderers of this woman come to the market place (after) having taken the money, I will somehow indict them all with (a charge of) murder.
2. ὅτε φίλων χάριν αἰσχρὰ ποιοῖτε, ὦ θυγατέρες, ὑπὸ τῶν τε σωφρόνων καὶ τῶν δικαίων πάντων οὐκ ἐτῑμᾶσθε κακῶς ἀκούουσαι. δίκαια οὖν πρά̄ττουσαι ἀξιώθητε τῑμῆς.
Daughters, whenever you were doing shameful things for the sake of (your) friends, you were not honored by the prudent and all the just as you were spoken of badly. So do just things, therefore, and be considered worthy of honor.
3. οὔ τοι διὰ τὴν πρᾱγμάτων ἐμπειρίᾱν ἀλλ’ ἀγαθῇ πως τύχῃ πρά̄ττει ἃ ἂν πρά̄ττῃ ἐκεῖνος ὁ στρατηγὸς ὁ εὐτυχής. τῑμώντων οὖν αὐτὸν οἱ πολῖται.
That lucky general does whatever he does not because of experience of affairs, you know, but somehow by good luck. So let the citizens honor him.
4. ὅταν οἱ ποιηταὶ βιβλία γράφωσι περὶ κακῶν τε καὶ ἀφρόνων γυναικῶν οἶνον κλεπτουσῶν καὶ αἰσχρὰ ποιουσῶν, οὐ βούλονται οἵ γε νεᾱνίαι τοὺς νόμους τοὺς τῆς πόλεως φυλάττειν. ἐκείνους δὴ μὴ ἀξιώσητε ἄ̄θλων ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσιν.
Whenever the poets write books about both bad and foolish women who steal wine and who do shameful things, the young men, at least, do not want to guard the city’s laws. Do not consider them in fact worthy of prizes in the contests.
5. τότε μὲν κατά γε τοὺς νόμους ἤρχετέ πως τοῦ δήμου ἀποδεχόμενοι τοὺς τῶν δικαίων λόγους, νῦν δὲ μετὰ τὸν τούτου τοῦ ῥήτορος φόνον τελευτήσετε τὸν βίον ὀκτὼ ἡμερῶν διὰ τὴν ὕβριν.
You somehow used to rule the people at that time according to the laws when you used to accept the speeches of the just, while now after the murder of this orator you will end your life within eight days because of your insolence.
6. τῆς αὐτῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸς ὁ Δημοσθένης οἷα ἐκ κινδύ̄νων σωθεὶς κήρῡκα τῇ γε μητρὶ πέμψαι ἐβουλήθη κελεύσοντα αὐτὴν οἶνόν τε καὶ ζῷα λαβοῦσαν καὶ τοὺς φίλους ἐκκαλοῦσαν θεοῖς τοῖς σωτῆρσι θῦσαι. ταῦτ’ οὖν τοῦ κήρῡκος ἀγγείλαντος, ἔθῡσεν ἡ μήτηρ.
Demosthenes himself, since he was saved from danger, wanted to send during the same night a herald to his mother, ordering her to sacrifice to the savior gods after having taken both wine and (sacrificial) animals and having called out her friends. So after the herald had announced these things, the mother sacrificed.
7. οὔτε ἀγαθὸς ψῡχῇ οὔτε σώφρων ὃς ἄν ποτ’ ἔρωτί τε καὶ σώματος κάλλει δουλεύων βούληται τὰ τῆς πόλεως πρά̄ττειν. πῶς γὰρ ἂν οὗτος ἄρχοι ἢ τῶν ἄλλων πολῑτῶν ἢ καὶ αὐτῆς τῆς οἰκίᾱς; τούτου δὴ τῆς πόλεως ἄρχοντος, νῑκηθησόμεθα.
Neither good in soul nor prudent is he who at any time while being a slave both to the love and beauty of body wants to run the affairs of the city. For how could he rule either the other citizens or even the household itself? If in fact this man rules the city, we will be conquered.
8. ὦ γύναι, ὅταν ὁ βασιλεὺς θυσίᾱν ἀγάγῃ ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀθηναίων δήμου κακὰ πάσχοντος, λίθους λαβοῦσα μὴ βάλλε τούς γε ἱερέᾱς. ἐὰ̄ν γὰρ τοῦτο ποιήσῃς, κακὰ πείσει.
Woman, whenever the king performs a sacrifice on behalf of the Athenian people when they are suffering bad things, do not take rocks and pelt the priests. For if you do this, you will suffer.
9. ὅτε εἰς μάχην ταξαίμεθα τὴν πόλιν φυλάξοντες, τά̄ς τε γυναῖκας καὶ τὰ̄ς θυγατέρας ἐν τῇ πόλει μετὰ τῶν γερόντων ἐλείπομεν.
Whenever we were stationed for battle in order to guard the city, we used to leave both (our) wives and daughters in the city with the old men.
10. ὦ ὁπλῖτα, εἴθε μὴ ἀποβάλοις τὰ ὅπλα. ἅμα γὰρ ταῦτα ἀποβαλὼν οὔτ’ ἄν ποτ’ ἐν μάχῃ σωθείης οὔτε καλῶς ἀκούσει ποτέ. μένων οὖν ἐνταῦθα δόξης ἀξιώθητι.
Hoplite, if only you would not throw away your arms. For if you should throw [having thrown] those away, you would at the same time neither be saved in battle ever, nor ever be spoken of well (nobly). Stay here, then, and be considered worthy of glory.
11. ἐπεί γε ταῦτ’ ἀπήγγειλε τοῖς στρατιώταις ὁ κῆρυξ ἐκ τῆς χώρᾱς ἥκων, οἱ ὁπλῖται οἱ εὐγενεῖς τοὺς τῶν βαρβάρων ἵππους βλάψαι ἐβουλήθησαν.
After the herald who had come from the countryside announced these things to the soldiers, the well-born hoplites wanted to injure the horses of the barbarians.
12. αἴτιός τοι τῆς τῶν Ἑλλήνων νί̄κης ὁ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡγεμών. οὐ γὰρ δὴ ἧκεν ἐν καιρῷ παρὰ τοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ καίπερ τὴν πόλιν λιπὼν ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾱͅ ὥστε ὁ στρατὸς σύμπᾱς ἐξενῑκήθη. τοῦ δὲ στρατοῦ νῑκηθέντος, παύσατε τὸν πόλεμον.
The leader of the barbarians is responsible, you know, for the victory of the Greeks. For he in fact has not come in time to the men in the plain, although he had left the city on the same day with the result that the whole army was routed [thoroughly defeated]. And since the army has been defeated, stop the war.
13. τόνδε γε τὸν γέροντα μὴ λιπέτω ἐνταῦθα καίπερ ἐθέλοντα μένειν. τοῦδε γάρ τοι μένοντος ἐν τῇ πόλει, ὅπλοις τε καὶ λίθοις οὐ βουλήσονται πάντες ἐκείνους τοὺς πολεμίους τοὺς ἄφρονας βαλεῖν.
Do not let him leave this old man here although he wishes to stay. For if this man, you know, stays in the city, everyone will not want to pelt those foolish enemy with arms and rocks.
14. εἰς τὴν οἰκίᾱν δέδεξαι, ὦ Σώκρατες, καὶ φίλους καὶ ἐχθροὺς ὡς αὐτὸς παιδεύσων αὐτοὺς περὶ αὐτῆς τῆς ἀρετῆς. ἀλλὰ παῦσαι.
You have, Socrates, welcomed both friends and enemies into your house in order to (as you say) educate them yourself about virtue itself. But stop.
15. μετά γε τὸν ὑπὲρ ταύτης τῆς πόλεως ἀγῶνα τὸ νί̄κης ἆθλον, χρῡσοῦ στέφανον, λιπών πως ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἥκεις ἐνταῦθα βουλόμενος τῑμηθῆναι.
After the contest over [on behalf of] this city, having somehow left the prize of victory — a crown of gold — in the plain, you have come here wanting to be honored.
16. τοῖς γε σώφροσιν οὔτοι τὸ σώματος κάλλος ἀγαθόν, ἀλλ’ οἱ τρόποι οἱ αὐτῆς τῆς ψῡχῆς. ὅταν γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ὑπ’ ἀδίκων ἀνδρῶν βλαβὲν κακὰ πάσχῃ, σῴζεταί πως ὑπὸ θεῶν ἡ τοῦ δικαίου ψῡχή. καὶ τῆς ψῡχῆς σῳζομένης, ὁ πᾶς ἄνθρωπος σῴζεται.
To the prudent, the beauty of body is not indeed good, but the character (ways) of the soul itself [is good]. For whenever the body, having been harmed by unjust men, suffers bad things, the soul of the just man is somehow saved by the gods. And when the soul is saved, the whole human being is saved.
17. πέντε ἡμερῶν ἀκούσεσθε αὐτοὶ τῶν αὐτῶν κηρύ̄κων τάδε· ὅτε τὴν νῆσον ἐλίπομεν, τῶν πολεμίων νῑκηθέντων ἐχόρευον οἱ ὀκτὼ χορευταί.
Within five days you yourselves will hear this from the same heralds. When we left the island, since the enemy had been conquered, the eight dancers were dancing.
18. φύλαξ τῶν τε νόμων καὶ τῆς δημοκρατίᾱς ὁ σὺν θεοῖς τρόπῳ δικαίῳ ἄρχων τοῦ δήμου.
A guardian of both the laws and of the democracy is the man who rules the people with (the help of) the gods in a just manner.
19. πότε αὐταὶ κακὰ πάσχουσαι ἐκβαλεῖτέ πως ἐκ πόλεως τούσδε τοὺς ἄφρονας; ἐκβάλετ’ αὐτούς.
Since you are yourselves suffering bad things, when will you somehow throw out from the city these foolish men? Throw them out.
20. τῶν μὲν ἀγαθῶν καὶ δικαίων καὶ ταύτης τῆς πόλεως σωτήρων ἀκούσατε, ὦ ἄνδρες, τἀ̄ληθῆ. ἐκείνων δὲ τῶν ῥητόρων τῶν ἀφρόνων καὶ ἀδίκων καὶ τούτου τοῦ πολέμου αἰτίων ἀκούσεσθε λόγους οὐ καλούς.
Hear, men, the truth from the good and just (men) and from the saviors of this city. While from those foolish and unjust orators (who are) responsible for this war you will hear speeches (that are) not fine.
21. ἄγε δὴ ἄκουσον, ὦ γέρον· εἰσπεμφθέντων τῶν ἀγγέλων εἰς πόλιν ὑπὸ βασιλέως, ἀκούσονταί τοι πάντες οἱ πολῖται περὶ τῆς μάχης.
Come on, old man, listen. Since the messengers were sent into a city by a king, all the citizens will hear, you know, about the battle.
22. τῷ μὲν γένει ἀγαθοὶ οὗτοι, τοῖς δὲ τρόποις κακοί. κακῶς γάρ τοι τοῖς ῥήτορσι πεπαιδευμένοι κακὰ πρά̄ττουσι καὶ οἱ εὐγενεῖς. ταῦτα δηλούτω ποθ’ ὁ Σωκράτης ὁ σώφρων.
By birth, these men are good, but in their character (ways) they are bad. For even the well-born do bad things if they have been taught badly, you know, by the orators. Let Socrates the prudent show these things some time.
23. οὐχ ὕβρις τόδε, τὸ τόν τε πατέρα καὶ αὐτὴν τὴν μητέρα ἀεὶ κακῶς ποιεῖν καὶ χρῡσὸν καὶ ἀργύριον καὶ οἶνον ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς ἐκκλέπτειν καὶ θεοῖς μήτε θύ̄ειν μήτε χορεύειν;
Is this not insolence: always to do bad things to both (one’s) father and (one’s) very mother, stealing gold, silver and wine from the house, and neither sacrificing nor dancing to the gods?
24. οἷα τὸν δῆμον πείσᾱς, διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίᾱν, ὦ ἄνερ, ἐν πόλει μεῖνον.
Since you persuaded the people, on account of this cause, man, stay in the city.
25. καλοῦ ἀξιοῦντες τὴν αἰσχρὰ̄ν κακοῦ ἂν ἀξιοῖμεν τὴν σώφρονα, ἢ οὔ;
If we should think the shameful woman worthy of (something) noble, would we think the prudent woman worthy of (something) bad or not?
26. καὶ αἰσχρόν τοι καὶ ἄφρον τὸ τούς γ’ ἐχθροὺς εἰς τὴν οἰκίᾱν εἰσδεξάμενον τοὺς φίλους ἀποπέμψαι.
It is both shameful, you know, and foolish to send away one’s friends (after) having admitted one’s enemies into one’s house.
1. You yourselves used to hear Demosthenes whenever he began a speech.
αὐτοὶ τὸν Δημοσθένη ἠκούετε ὅτε λόγου ἄρξαιτο.
2. After the poet is honored by the noble young men, let the citizens sacrifice to all the muses.
ἐπειδὰν τιμᾶται ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπὸ τῶν εὐγενῶν νεανιῶν, θυσάντων οἱ πολῖται ταῖς πάσαις μούσαις.
3. Whenever Demosthenes’ father persuaded the people to guard against the enemy, he sacrificed to the gods of the city. Announce this to the citizens young man.
ἐπειδὴ ὅ γε τοῦ Δημοσθένους πατὴρ τὸν δῆμον πείσαι φυλάττεσθαι τοὺς πολεμίους, τοῖς τῆς πόλεως θεοῖς ἔθυεν. τοῦτο ἄγγειλον, ὦ νεανία, τοῖς πολίταις.
4. How are we to guard against evil speakers and foolish poets who somehow persuade the young men to wrong their mothers and fathers?
πῶς φυλαττώμεθα κακοὺς ῥήτορας καὶ ἄφρονας ποιητὰς οἵ πως πείθουσι τοὺς νεανίας ἀδικεῖν τὰς μητέρας καὶ τοὺς πατέρας;
5. I myself, you know, shall remain there in order that I may welcome the king himself in the same manner.
αὐτός τοι ἐκεῖ μενῶ ὅπως δέχωμαι τὸν βασιλεᾶ αὐτὸν τῷ αὐτῷ τρόπῳ.
6. If we ourselves should ever hit him with the same stones, he would not want to leave the gold in the market place.
εἰ αὐτοὶ βάλοιμέν ποτε αὐτὸν τοῖς αὐτοῖς λίθοις, οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο τὸν χρυσὸν λιπεῖν ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.