Unit 16 introduces the important concept of indirect discourse.
1. The verbs φημί and γιγνώσκω;
2. Indirect Statement;
3. Future Optative and Infinitive;
4. The adjective πολύς, πολλή, πολύ;
1. νομίζετε τόν γε Σωκράτη πολλὰ καὶ κακὰ παθεῖν.
You believe that Socrates at least suffered many bad things.
2. ἤκουσαν ποιητήν τινα τοὺς νέους διδάξοντα.
They heard that some poet would teach the young men.
3. ἐλέξαμεν ὡς οὔποτε ἀνδράσι δουλεύσοιμεν.
We said that we would never be slaves to men.
4. τοὺς ἄνευ σωφροσύνης φαμὲν τὴν πόλιν προδώσειν.
We assert that those without moderation will betray the city.
5. ἕκαστος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀναβήσεται εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν ναῦν τὴν ἐν τῷ λιμένι.
Each one said that he would board that ship in the harbor.
6. σύ γε νὴ τὸν Δία ἤγγειλάς μοι πολλοὺς πονηρούς τε καὶ ἄφρονας ἐν τῇ στάσει ἐκπεσόντας ἐκ πόλεως.
You, by Zeus, announced to me that many base and foolish men were banished from the city in the civil strife.
7. εἰ γὰρ μήτε Ζεὺς μήτε οἱ ἄλλοι δαίμονες σώσαιεν τοὺς τὸν δῆμον προδόντας.
If only neither Zeus nor the other divinities would save those who have betrayed the people.
8. ἔγωγε ἐνόμιζον τὸν βασιλέᾱ εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν ἀναβαίνειν.
I, at least, believed that the king was going up into his city.
9. μὴ εἴπῃς ὡς οὐκ ἔστι Ζεύς.
Do not say that there is no Zeus (…that Zeus does not exist).
10. φῶμεν μόνους τοὺς σοφοὺς εὐδαίμονας εἶναι;
Are we to say that the wise alone are happy?
11. (a) ᾔσθοντο τοὺς ὁπλί̄τᾱς ἀδικοῦντας.
They perceived that the hoplites were doing wrong.
(b) ᾔσθοντο οἱ ὁπλῖται ἀδικοῦντες.
The hoplites perceived that they (themselves) were doing wrong.
12. ἡμῖν ἔφησθά που Σωκράτει μὲν οὔτε χρῡσὸν οὔτ’ ἄργυρον εἶναι, τοῖς μαθηταῖς δὲ τοῖς εὐγενέσι καὶ χρῡσὸν καὶ ἀργύριον πολύ.
You, surely, told us that while Socrates had neither gold nor silver, (his) well-born students had much gold and money.
13. ποῖα πέπρᾱχεν οὗτος; οἷα γὰρ ἂν πρά̄ξῃ τις, τοιοῦτος ἔσται τήν γε ψῡχήν.
What sorts of things has he done? For whatever sort of thing anyone does, he will be of that sort with respect to his soul.
14. ἀκούομέν σε πόλιν τε τὴν ἡμετέρᾱν αὐτῶν προδιδόντα καὶ δῶρα πολλὰ παρὰ Λακεδαιμονίων αὐτίκα ληψόμενον. οὐ γὰρ ἡμᾶς λανθάνεις κακὰ ποιῶν.
We hear that you are betraying our city and are presently about to take many gifts (bribes) from the Spartans. For your evil doings do not escape us.
15. κατέβημεν εἰς θάλατταν ὡς τὰ̄ς τῶν βαρβάρων ναῦς ἴδωμεν.
We went down to the sea so that we might see the ships of the barbarians.
16. εἶπεν ὁ τὸν οἶνον κεκλοφὼς ὅτι δίκην οὔποτε δώσοι.
The man who has stolen the wine said that he would never pay the penalty.
17. ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηαῖοι, ἐὰ̄ν Σωκράτη θανάτου ἀξιώσητε, οἵ γε σώφρονες οὔποθ’ ὑ̄μᾶς νομιοῦσι τὸ δίκαιον ποιῆσαι.
Men of Athens, if you deem Socrates worthy of death, the wise will never believe that you did the just thing.
18. τίν’ ἂν τρόπον γνοῖμεν σαφῶς τὴν τῆς σωφροσύνης φύσιν; ταύτην γὰρ γνόντες καὶ ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς εὖ γνωσόμεθα.
In what way could we recognize clearly the nature of moderation? For if we know this we will also know ourselves well.
19. ἆρα τοῦ Σωκράτους ἤκουσας λέγοντος ὡς χαλεπὸν εἴη ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ αὑτὸν γνῶναι;
Did you hear Socrates saying that it is hard for a human being to know himself?
20. ἔλεγέν τις πονηρὸς ὅτι αὐτός γε, καίπερ ἐν τῇ τότε στάσει ἐκπεσὼν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως, οὐκ ἐκπεσοῖτο ὑπὸ τῶν νῦν ἀρχόντων· δῶρα γάρ τινα λαμβάνοιεν ἄν.
A certain base man was saying that although he had been banished from the city in the civil strife at that time, he at least would not be banished by the rulers today; for they would take certain bribes.
21. ἐκ τοῦ θεά̄τρου ἐκβάλετε τὸν ποιητὴν τὸν ἡμᾶς φήσαντα κακοὺς στρατηγοὺς αἱρεῖσθαι. ἢ οὐ φοβεῖσθε μὴ ὁ τοιαῦτα λέγων ἡμᾶς πάντας βλάψῃ;
Throw out of the theater the poet who said that we chose bad generals. Or are you not afraid that he who says such things may harm us all?
22. ὦ ἄνδρες, ἔτι ἐν κινδύ̄νῳ οὔσης τῆς πόλεως μήτε μαχόμενοι παυσώμεθα μήτε τοιούτῳ ῥήτορι πεισθέντες προδῶμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς.
Men, since the city is still in danger, let us neither cease from fighting nor, obeying such an orator, betray ourselves.
23. οἷοι εἴησαν οἵ γε πολῖται, τοιαύτη ἂν εἴη καὶ ἡ πόλις.
Of whatever kind the citizens might be, the city too would be of such a kind.
24. αὐτούς φησι τὰ̄ς σφετέρᾱς αὐτῶν ναῦς εἰς τὴν νῆσον πέμψειν.
He says that they will send their own ships to the island.
25. (a) ἔφατέ με κακῶς πρά̄ξειν. You said that I would do badly.
(b) ἔφατε κακῶς πρά̄ξειν. You said that you would do badly.
(c) φήσετε τά̄σδε καλῶς πρά̄ττειν. You will say that these women will do noble things.
(d) φήσετε τά̄σδε καλῶς πρᾶξαι. You will say that these women did noble things.
26. εἴ πού σοί τινές ποθ’ ἕποιντο, οἷός τ’ ἂν εἴης τὴν πολῑτείᾱν καταλύ̄σᾱς ἄρξαι τοῦ δήμου.
Surely, if anyone should ever follow you, you would be able to rule the people after having destroyed the regime.
27. εἱλόμην λόγον εἰπεῖν ἐν τῷ νῦν ῥητορικῆς ἀγῶνι νομίσᾱς ἱκανὸν ἆθλον ἔσεσθαί μοι οὐτε χρῡσὸν οὔτ’ ἄργυρον ἀλλὰ μόνον τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ τοῦ λόγου γενησομένην.
I chose to give (lit.: say) a speech in the present contest of rhetoric since I believed that neither gold nor silver but only the glory that is about to come to be from the speech itself would be a sufficient prize for me.
28. — Μανθάνεις, ὦ παῖ, τὰ λεγόμενα;
Do you understand, boy, the things said?
— Πάνυ γε· λέγεις γάρ που ὅτι πᾶσι μὲν ἔξεστι καλῶς πρά̄ττειν, πολλοὶ δὲ διὰ τὴν αὑτῶν ἀμαθίᾱν πρά̄ττουσι κακῶς.
Certainly. For you are saying, I suppose, that while it is possible for everyone to act nobly, many do bad things on account of their ignorance.
— Εὖ γε· τίνα δὴ τρόπον γένοιντ’ ἂν οὗτοι εὐδαίμονες;
Well done. In what way, in fact, could the latter become happy?
— Κατά γε τὴν σὴν γνώμην οἱ πονηροὶ γνόντες τὴν τῆς σωφροσύνης φύσιν παύσονταί πως ἀδικοῦντες.
According to your judgment, if (when) the base men know the nature of moderation they will somehow stop doing wrong.
29. (a) τοῦτον ἤγγειλεν ἐκ πόλεως ἐκφεύγοντα.
He announced that this man was fleeing from the city.
(b) τοῦτον ἤγγειλεν ἐκ πόλεως ἐκφυγόντα.
He announced that this man had fled from the city.
(c) τοῦτον ἤγγειλεν ἐκ πόλεως ἐκπεφευγότα.
He announced that this man has fled from the city.
(d) τοῦτον ἤγγειλεν ἐκ πόλεως ἐκφευξόμενον.
He announced that this man would flee from the city.
30. γνῶθι σαυτόν. Know thyself.
31. ὦ Ζεῦ καὶ θεοί, τίς χαίροι ἂν ἀκούων τὸν Σωκράτη θανάτου τ’ ἀξιωθέντα ὑπὸ πονηρῶν τινων καὶ πέντε ἡμερῶν τὸν βίον τελευτήσοντα;
O Zeus and gods, who could be glad to hear that Socrates was deemed worthy of death by some base men and (that) within five days his life would end?
32. ὑ̄μεῖς αὐτοί, ὦ ῥήτορες, ἐδείκνυθ’ ὅτι δημοκρατίᾱ μὲν ἀγαθὴ εἴη πολῑτείᾱ, βασιλέων δὲ τῶν παλαιῶν πολλοὶ οὔτε κακῶς οὔτε πονηρῶς τοῦ δήμου ἄρξαιεν.
You yourselves, orators, used to show that while democracy is a good regime, many of the ancient kings ruled the people neither badly nor basely.
1. By the gods, you at least used to say, Athenian men, that all the Greeks would conquer the foreigners and set up a trophy.
νὴ τοὺς θεοὺς ὑμεῖς γ’ ἐλέγετε, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, ὅτι πάντες οἱ Ἕλληνες τοὺς ξένους νικήσοιεν καὶ τρόπαιον ἀναθησεῖεν.
2. (a) You said that we ourselves would conquer.
ἐλέγετε ὅτι (ἡμεῖς) αὐτοὶ νικήσοιμεν.
(b) You thought that we ourselves would conquer.
ἐνομίζετε ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς νικήσειν.
(c) You heard that we ourselves would conquer.
ἠκούσατε ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς νικήσοντας.
3. (a) He says that I sent the ship.
λέγει ὅτι ἔπεμψα τὴν ναῦν.
(b) He says that I sent the ship.
ἐμέ φησι πέμψαι τὴν ναῦν.
(c) He announces that I sent the ship.
ἀγγέλει ἐμὲ πέμψαντα τὴν ναῦν.
4. We shall send whatever sort of animals you want to sacrifice.
οἷα ζῷα θῦσαι βούλῃ, τοιαῦτα πέμψομεν.