Unit 3 continues with the presentation of the Greek verbal system, introducing now the Subjunctive and the Optative Moods.
1. Perfect indicative active;
2. Pluperfect indicative active;
3. Perfect infinitive active;
4. Subjunctive and Optative Moods: Present and Aorist active;
5. Sequence of Moods
6. Purpose Clause
1. ὁ δῆμος ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς τοῖς θεοῖς θύσει ἵνα τὸν πόλεμον παύσωσιν.
The people will sacrifice to the gods in the roads so that they may stop the war.
2. ὡς τὸν πόλεμον παύσωσιν ὁ δῆμος ταῖς θεοῖς θύει.
The people are sacrificing to the goddesses so that they may stop the war.
3. ἀγγέλους ἔπεμψαν ἐξ ἀγορᾶς οἱ ξένοι ὅπως λύσαιεν τὴν εἰρήνην.
The foreigners sent messengers from the market place in order that they might destroy the peace.
4. ἀγγέλους ἔπεμπον περὶ τὴν νῆσον ὅπως μὴ λύοιτε τὴν εἰρήνην.
They were sending messengers around the island in order that you might not destroy the peace.
5. ἵνα λύσωμεν τὸν Ὅμηρον δῶρα πεπόμφασιν.
In order that we may free Homer, they have sent gifts.
6. βιβλίον δὴ περὶ πολέμου γράψαι κελεύετε Ὅμηρον ὅπως εὖ παιδεύητε τοὺς ἀδελφούς. φυλάξουσι γὰρ τὴν χώραν.
You are ordering Homer to write a book in fact about war in order that you may educate (your) brothers well. For they will guard the land.
7. καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ τῇ βουλῇ χρυσὸν ἔπεμψεν ἵνα μὴ λύσειαν τὴν φιλίαν.
He sent gold to both the assembly and the council in order that they might not destroy the friendship.
8. τοὺς μὲν ὀφθαλμοὺς Ὁμήρου οὐκ ἐφύλαξαν οἱ θεοί. τὰ δὲ βιβλία τὰ περὶ τῆς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀρετῆς εὖ πεφυλάχασιν.
While the gods did not guard Homer’s eyes, they have guarded well (his) books about the virtue of men.
9. λόγῳ μὲν τὴν εἰρήνην ἐλελύκεσαν, ἔργῳ δὲ οὔ.
They had destroyed the peace by word, but not by deed.
10. ἆρα γράψεις πέντε βιβλία περὶ τῶν τοῖς θεοῖς θυσιῶν ἵνα δῶρα παρὰ τοὺς θεοὺς πέμπωμεν;
Will you write five books about the sacrifices to the gods so that we may send gifts to the gods?
11. διὰ τὴν τῶν θεῶν βουλὴν ἐπεπαύκεμεν τὸν πόλεμον, ἀλλὰ στεφάνους εἰς ἀγορὰν οὐκ ἐπέμψαμεν.
We had stopped the war on account of the will of the gods, but we did not send crowns to the market place.
12. ἐπειδὴ τοὺς παρὰ τῶν ξένων ἀγγέλους ἐφυλάξαμεν, τὴν δημοκρατίαν οὐκ ἔλυσαν.
Since we guarded the messengers from the foreigners, they did not destroy the democracy.
13. ἆρα ὁ Ὅμηρος τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς τῇ περὶ τοὺς λόγους τέχνῃ πεπαίδευκεν ὡς τὴν ἀρετὴν ἐν ταῖς μάχαις εὖ φυλάττωσιν;
Has Homer educated (his) brothers by the art concerning speeches in order that they may guard well virtue in (the) battles?
14. διὰ τὰς ἀρετὰς τοῖς φίλοις στεφάνους, ἆθλα νίκης, ἐπεπόμφεμεν.
We had sent crowns, victory prizes, to (our) friends on account of (their) virtues.
15. ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἐθύσαμεν πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου τῇ θεῷ, νῦν καὶ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ τεθύκαμεν ἵνα ἀρετὴν εἰς τὰς ψυχὰς πέμψῃ.
Since we did not sacrifice to the goddess before the war, we have now sacrificed both on the island and in the market place so that She may send virtue into (our) souls.
16. ἐκ τῆς χώρας εἰς τὴν νῆσον ἔπεμψεν ὁ δῆμος καὶ τὸν ξένον ἵνα τὴν εἰρήνην μὴ λύσειεν. ἓξ γὰρ βιβλία περὶ πολέμου ἐγεγράφειν.
The people sent even the stranger out of the land to the island in order that he might not destroy the peace. For he had written six books about war.
17. ὦ Ὅμηρε, τῷ μὲν ἀδελφῷ βιβλίον ἀντὶ χρυσοῦ πέμπεις, τῷ δὲ θεῷ στέφανον ἀντὶ ζῴου.
Homer, while to your brother you send a book instead of gold, to the god (you send) a crown instead of an animal.
18. ἔθυες τοῖς θεοῖς ἵνα παιδεύοιεν τοὺς ξένους τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς.
You used to sacrifice to the gods in order that they might teach the foreigners in the island about virtue.
19. τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἐκέλευσε τὸν πόλεμον παῦσαι πρὸ τῆς νίκης.
He ordered the brothers to stop the war before the victory.
20. ἢ τῇ βουλῇ ἢ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ δῶρα πέμψουσιν οἱ ξένοι ἵνα μὴ λύσητε τὴν φιλίαν.
The foreigners will send gifts either to the council or to the assembly in order that you may not destroy the friendship.
21. τὰ τοῦ Ὁμήρου βιβλία τοὺς ξένους πεπαίδευκεν.
The books of Homer have taught the foreigners.
22. ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγορᾶς From the market place
παρὰ τῷ τοῦ Ὁμήρου ἀδελφῷ At Homer’s brother’s house
διὰ τῆς οἰκίας Through the house
παρὰ τὸν Ὅμηρον To (the side of) Homer
διὰ τῆς νήσου Through the island
τεθυκέναι To have sacrificed
πεπαυκέναι To have stopped
1. We have freed the brothers in order that you may not destroy the peace.
τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς λελύκαμεν ἵνα τὴν εἰρήνην μὴ λύσητε.
2. But you had sent prizes to Homer in order that he might educate your brother.
ἀλλὰ τῷ Ὁμήρῳ ἄθλα ἐπεπόμφετε ἵνα παιδεύοι τὸν ἀδελφόν.
3. He had written a book about peace in order that we might stop wars.
βιβλίον ἐγεγράφει περὶ εἰρήνης ὡς παύσαιμεν πολέμους.