Unit 4 concludes the first declension nouns and introduces adjectives of the first and second declension. There then follows HQ’s treatment of Conditional sentences.
1. First Declension Nouns (short –α and masculine);
2. First and Second Declension Adjectives;
3. Agreement of Adjective and Noun (including Predicate and Attributive position)
4. Conditional Sentences
1. ἐὰν αἱ μοῦσαι τὸν ἀγαθὸν ποιητὴν εὖ διδάξωσιν, γράψει καλὸν βιβλίον περὶ τῶν ἐν ἀγορᾷ θυσιῶν.
If the muses teach the good poet well, he will write a fine book about the sacrifices in the market place.
2. ἡ μὲν μάχη στρατιώταις κακή, ἀγαθὴ δὲ ἡ νίκη.
While battle is bad for soldiers, victory is good.
3. ὦ φίλε στρατιῶτα, εἰ τὴν χώραν μετὰ τῶν δικαίων ἀνθρώπων ἐφύλαττες, οἱ νεανίαι οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς νήσου οὐκ ἂν ἔλυον τὴν εἰρήνην.
Dear soldier, if you were guarding the land with (the) just men, the young men from the island would not be destroying the peace.
4. ἆρα τοὺς καλοὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς ὁπλίτας παρὰ τῇ γεφύρᾷ τέταχας ἵνα μετὰ τὴν μάχην φυλάττωσι τὴν χώραν;
Have you stationed the noble and good hoplites by the bridge in order that they may guard the land after the battle?
5. εἰ οἱ ποιηταὶ βιβλία περὶ δίκης γράψειαν, ταῖς μούσαις, ταῖς ποιητῶν θεοῖς, ἔθυον. δίκαιοι γὰρ οἱ ποιηταί.
If [ever] the poets wrote books about justice, they sacrificed to the muses, the goddesses of the poets. For the poets are just.
6. εἰ τὴν δημοκρατίαν λύοιτε, ὦ κακοὶ πολῖται, λύοιτ’ ἂν καὶ τὴν ἐν ταῖς καλαῖς νήσοις εἰρήνην.
If you should destroy the democracy, bad citizens, you would also destroy the peace in the beautiful islands.
7. εἰ τοὺς στρατιώτας εἰς τὴν μάχην σὺν ὅπλοις ἔπεμψας, τοὺς νεανίας ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἐτάξαμεν ἂν ὡς τὰς οἰκίας φυλάττοιεν.
If you had sent the soldiers into battle with weapons, we would have stationed the young men in the market place in order that they might guard the houses.
8. ἡ μὲν τοῦ νεανίου ψυχὴ δικαία, ἡ δὲ τοῦ στρατιώτου ψυχὴ ἄδικος.
While the soul of the young man is just, the soul of the soldier is unjust.
9. θύω τῇ καλῇ θεῷ, ἐὰν ἀγαθὸν ζῷον πέμψῃς.
I sacrifice to the beautiful goddess, if [ever] you send a good animal.
10. ἐὰν κακοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς πόλεμον πέμψωμεν, ἀγαθοὺς ἀνθρώπους θάψομεν.
If we send bad men to war, we will bury good men.
11. ἄξιοι ἀρχῆς οἱ πολῖται οἱ ἀγαθοὶ καὶ δίκαιοι. ἐθέλουσι γὰρ παῦσαι τὸν κακὸν πόλεμον.
The good and just citizens are worthy of rule. For they are willing to stop the bad war.
12. μοῖρα στρατιώτου ἡ μάχη. Battle is the lot of a soldier.
13. ὅπως ἀγαθὸν βιβλίον γράψειεν, ὁ ποιητὴς ὁ δίκαιος τοῖς θεοῖς ζῷα καλὰ ἔθυεν.
In order that he might write a good book, the just poet was sacrificing beautiful animals to the gods.
14. εἰ ὁ φίλος Ὅμηρος τῇ θεῷ θύειν μὴ ἠθέλησεν, ἀγαθὸν βιβλίον περὶ ἀνθρώπων ἀρετῆς οὐκ ἂν ἔγραψεν.
If beloved Homer had not been willing to sacrifice to the goddess, he would not have written a good book about the virtue of men.
15. ὦ φίλοι, ἐὰν διὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βουλὴν λύσωμεν τὴν δημοκρατίαν, πέμψομεν τοὺς πολίτας τοὺς ἀρχῆς ἀναξίους ἐκ τῆς χώρας παρὰ τοὺς ἐν τῇ νήσῷ ξένους.
Friends, if we destroy the democracy on account of the will of the god,we will send the citizens (who are) unworthy of rule out of the land to the strangers on the island.
16. ἀγαθὴ δὴ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἡ νίκης ἡμέρα.
To men, the day of victory is good, in fact.
(In the eyes of men)
17. εἰ τὰ τῶν θεῶν ἔργα παιδεύσαι τὸν νεανίαν τὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ, οὐκ ἂν ἐθέλοι ὅπλα πέμπειν παρὰ τοὺς στρατιώτας τοὺς ἀδίκους.
If the deeds of the gods should teach the young man in the house, he would refuse to send weapons to the unjust soldiers.
18. εἰ ὁ θεὸς τὸν φίλον ποιητὴν κελεύοι τοὺς νεανίας διδάσκειν, τῇ μούσῃ ἔθυεν.
If [ever] the god ordered the beloved poet to teach the young men, he sacrificed to the muse.
19. ἐπειδὴ οἱ ἓξ ἄγγελοι οἱ παρὰ τῶν ξένων δῶρ’ ἔπεμψαν καὶ τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ, ὁ δῆμος οὐκ ἐθέλει τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ὁπλίτας τάξαι εἰς μάχην.
Since the six messengers from the strangers sent gifts to both the council and the assembly, the people are refusing to station the good hoplites into battle.
20. εἰ χρυσὸν ἢ στέφανον τοῖς ἄθλου ἀξίοις ὁπλίταις ἔπεμπες, ὦ νεανία, οὐκ ἂν ἔλυον τὴν εἰρήνην.
If, young man, you were sending gold or a crown to the hoplites worthy of a prize, they would not be destroying the peace.
21. ἐὰν τὴν μάχην μὴ παύσητε, καλοὺς ὁπλίτας διὰ τῆς χώρας παρὰ τὴν θάλατταν πέμψομεν ἵνα λύσωσι τοὺς δικαίους φίλους τοὺς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ.
If you do not stop the battle, we will send noble hoplites through the land to the sea in order that they may free the just friends in the house.
22. οἱ ἀγαθοὶ πολῖται δῶρα πέμπουσιν ἐὰν οἱ ποιηταὶ οἱ χρυσοῦ ἄξιοι βιβλία γράψωσι περὶ δίκης.
The good citizens send gifts if [ever] the poets worthy of gold write books about justice.
23. πάλαι τοὺς ἀδίκους πολίτας παρὰ τῇ θαλάττῃ ἐθάπτετε, ἀλλὰ νῦν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς κακοὺς καὶ ἀδίκους καὶ ἀναξίους πέμπετ’ εἰς τὴν νῆσον τὴν οὐ καλήν.
You used to bury the unjust citizens by the sea a long time ago, but now you send the bad, unjust and unworthy men to the island, (the one that is) not beautiful.
24. ἄθλου ἀνάξιος ἡ τοῦ κακοῦ πολίτου ψυχή. καίτοι δῶρα κακοῖς πολίταις πέμπειν ἐθέλετε.
The soul of the bad citizen is unworthy of a prize. And yet you are willing to send gifts to bad citizens.
25. ἐὰν χρυσὸν μὴ πέμπητε, τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς νεανίας τὴν τέχνην διδάσκειν οὐκ ἐθέλω.
If [ever] you do not send gold, I refuse to teach the good young men the art.
26. πρὸ τῆς μάχης Before the battle
μετὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶν. With the soldiers
μετὰ τὸν πόλεμον After the war
περὶ λόγους Concerning speeches
περὶ ταῖς οἰκίαις Around the houses
σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς. With the (help of the) gods
διδάξαι To teach
τεταχέναι To have stationed
27. νεανίαι οἱ ἀγαθοί The good young men
ἀγαθοὶ οἱ νεανίαι The young men are good
ἡ καλὴ γέφυρα The beautiful bridge
ἡ γέφυρα καλή The bridge is beautiful
φίλος ὁ ποιητής The poet is dear
28. ὁ ποιητὴς ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄξιος τοῖς πολίταις διδάσκειν τοὺς νεανίας.
To the citizens, the good poet is worthy to teach the young men.
1. If the poet writes a good book about battle, the young men will dissolve the peace.
ἐὰν ἀγαθὸν βιβλίον γράφῃ ὁ ποητὴς περὶ μάχης, οἱ νεανίαι τὴν εἰρήνην λύσουσιν.
2. If you (pl.) should sacrifice animals to the gods, we would stop the war.
εἰ ζῷα θύοιτε τοῖς θεοῖς, παύσαιμεν ἂν τὸν πόλεμον.
3. If I had guarded the island, you would have guarded the bridge.
εἰ τὴν νῆσον ἐφύλαξα, τὴν γέφυραν ἐφύλαξας ἄν.
4. The citizens refused to send animals in order that the soldiers on the island might sacrifice to the gods.
οἱ πολῖται οὐκ ἠθέλησαν ζῷα πέμψαι ἵνα οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ στρατιῶται τοῖς θεοῖς θύσαιεν.
5. The soul of the unjust man is not worthy of the prize.
ἡ τοῦ ἀδίκου ψυχὴ οὐκ ἀξία τοῦ ἄθλου.