Unit 5 is devoted primarily to the Passive Voice. (The Middle Voice is treated in a later chapter.) Covered in this chapter are:
1. Passive Voice;
2. Genitive and Dative of Personal Agent;
3. Substantive use of Adjectives and the Article;
4. Articular Infinitive and Dative of Means.
1. καὶ χρυσὸς καὶ ἄργυρος ὑπὸ τῶν πολιτῶν παρὰ τοὺς τῆς νήσου ἐπέμφθησαν ὡς ταῖς ἀθανάτοις θεοῖς ἐν τῇ τῆς νήσου ἀγορᾷ τῇ μικρᾷ θύσειαν. ὁ γὰρ πόλεμος ὁ φοβερὸς ταῖς θεοῖς ἐπέπαυτο.
Both gold and silver were sent by the citizens to the (men) of the island in order that they might sacrifice to the immortal goddesses in the small market place of the island. For the fearful war had been stopped by the goddesses.
2. ἀθάνατος ἡ δόξα ἡ τοῦ ποιητοῦ τοῦ τῶν μουσῶν ἱεροῦ, ἐπειδὴ καλὰ βιβλία περὶ τῆς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀρετῆς καὶ τῶν πολέμου κινδύνων Ὁμήρῳ γέγραπται.
Immortal is the reputation of the poet, the one who is sacred to the muses, since (OR: after) fine books have been written by Homer about the virtue of men and (about) the dangers of war.
3. εἰ τοῖς τοῦ πρώτου ἀγγέλου λόγοις τοῖς κακοῖς πεισθεῖτε τὴν εἰρήνην λῦσαι καὶ κακὰ πράττειν τοὺς ξένους, οὐ παύσαιεν ἂν τὸν πόλεμον πρὸ τῆς ἐν μάχῃ νίκης.
If you should be persuaded by the evil speeches of the first messenger to destroy the peace and to do evil to the strangers, they would not stop the war before victory in battle.
4. διὰ τοὺς κινδύνους τοῖς μὲν θεοῖς οἱ ἵπποι, ταῖς δὲ θεοῖς αἱ ἵπποι ὑπὸ τῶν ξένων ἐθύοντο πρὸ μαχῶν. ἀλλ’ ἡ τῶν ξένων χώρα οὐκ ἐφυλάχθη ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν.
On account of the dangers, before battles, horses used to be sacrificed by the strangers to the gods, on the one hand, mares to the goddesses, on the other. But the land of the strangers was not guarded by the gods.
5. ἆρα τῷ ἀγαθῷ διδασκάλῳ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἱκανὸν ἀργύριον πέμψεις ἐὰν ὁ ἀδελφὸς εὖ παιδευθῇ; ἐθέλει γὰρ παιδεύειν τοὺς ἀγαθούς.
Will you send enough money to the good teacher of (your) brother if (your) brother is taught well? For he wants to teach good (men).
6. διδάσκαλος τῶν πολιτῶν ὁ ἀγαθὸς ποιητής. λόγοις γὰρ τῶν ποιητῶν διδάσκονται οἱ πολῖται.
The good poet is a teacher of the citizens. For the citizens are taught by the words of the poets.
7. μετὰ τὴν μάχην καὶ οἱ καλοὶ καὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐν γῇ θάπτονται. ἀλλ’ ἀθάνατος
ἡ τῶν καλῶν δόξα.
After the battle both the noble and the bad are buried in the earth. But the reputation of the noble (men) is immortal.
8. εἰ βλάπτοιντο οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, ἔπεμπον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἵνα φυλάττοιντο ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν. οἱ γὰρ πολέμιοι οὐκ ἤθελον τὸν πόλεμον παῦσαι.
If [ever] the men on the island were harmed, they sent to the assembly in order that they might be guarded by the soldiers. For the enemy was refusing to stop the war.
9. εἰ ἐβλάβης ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου, δῶρα οὐκ ἔπεμψας ἂν. τοῖς γὰρ ἀδίκοις δῶρα οὐκ ἐπέμπετο.
If you had been harmed by the teacher, you would not have sent gifts. For gifts were not sent to unjust men.
10. οὐκ ἀγαθοὶ τοῖς ἵπποις οἱ λίθοι ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ.
The stones in the plain are not good for the horses.
11. νῦν πέμπομεν ἓξ τῶν στρατιωτῶν εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἵνα φυλάττηται ἡ γέφυρα.
We are now sending six of the soldiers into the plain in order that the bridge may be guarded.
12. ἱκανοὶ οἱ ποιηταὶ τοὺς πολίτας τὴν ἀρετὴν διδάσκειν;
Are the poets capable of teaching the citizens virtue?
13. εἰ ἡ γῆ ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν μὴ εὖ ἐφυλάττετο, οὐκ ἂν ἤθελον ἀγγέλους πέμψαι περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης.
If the land was not being guarded well by the soldiers, they would not be willing to send messengers concerning peace.
14. οὐ καλὸν τὸ βλάπτειν, ἀλλὰ καλὸν τὸ μὴ βλάπτεσθαι.
Harming is not noble, but not being harmed is noble.
(OR: It is not noble to harm, but it is noble not to be harmed.)
15. παρὰ τὴν τῶν στρατιωτῶν δόξαν ἐκελεύσθησαν τὴν γέφυραν φυλάττειν πρὸ τοῦ πεμφθῆναι εἰς μάχην.
Contrary to the expectation of the soldiers, they were ordered to guard the bridge before being sent into battle.
16. ἐὰν οἱ πρῶτοι στρατιῶται παρὰ τῇ γέφυρᾳ μὴ ταχθῶσιν, οὐ φυλάττεται τὸ πεδίον.
If [ever] the first soldiers are not stationed by the bridge, the plain is not guarded.
17. τοῖς στρατιώταις οὐχ ἱκανοὶ εἰς μάχην οἱ λίθοι.
The stones are not sufficient in battle for the soldiers.
(OR: To soldiers, stones are not sufficient in battle.)
18. διὰ τοῦ πεδίου πεμφθήσεσθε ὅπως μὴ λύσωσιν οἱ ξένοι τὴν εἰρήνην.
You will be sent through the plain in order that the strangers may not destroy the peace.
19. καὶ τοῖς μακροῖς καὶ τοῖς μικροῖς ἱκανὴ ἡ ἀρετή.
Virtue is sufficient for both tall (men) and short.
20. τὰ τῶν δικαίων δῶρα θεοὺς πέπεικεν. φίλοι γὰρ τοῖς θεοῖς οἱ δίκαιοι.
The gifts of the just have persuaded gods. For the just are dear to the gods.
21. βιβλίον περὶ τῆς ἀγαθῆς ψυχῆς τῷ ποιητῇ ἐγέγραπτο.
A book about the good soul had been written by the poet.
22. ὁ δίκαιος οὐχ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδίκου βλαβήσεται, ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀδίκῳ.
The just man will not be harmed by the unjust man, but by the unjust (thing/deed).
23. οὐχ ἱκανὸν τὸ μὴ βλάπτειν τοὺς φίλους.
Not harming friends is not sufficient.
24. ὁ δίκαιος τοὺς πολίτας ἐκέλευε μὴ πέμψαι τὸν ἄργυρον, τὸ τῶν θεῶν δῶρον, εἰς τὰς τῶν ἀδίκων οἰκίας.
The just man used to order the citizens not to send silver, the gift of the gods, into the houses of the unjust men.
25. ἐὰν τοῦ δήμου παρὰ τὴν δίκην ἄρχῃς, κακὰ πράττεις.
If [ever] you rule the people contrary to justice, you do bad things.
26. εἰ ὁ ποιητὴς τοὺς νεανίας κακὰ πράττειν τὸν δῆμον διδάξαι, πεμφθείη ἂν εἰς τὴν νῆσον.
If the poet should teach the young men to do bad things to the people, he would be sent to the island.
27. τῷ εὖ ἄρχειν τῶν νεανιῶν by ruling the young men well
οἱ μὴ μακροί men not tall
ἀπὸ τοῦ τῆς θεοῦ ἱεροῦ From the temple of the goddess
μετὰ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν With the hoplites
ὁ ὑπὸ γῆς θεός The god under earth
ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ πολέμου In the beginning of the war
κακοὶ οἱ μὴ ἀγαθοί men not good are bad
καλὰ τὰ τῶν ποιητῶν The things of the poets are beautiful
1. By sacrificing animals, men had persuaded the gods to stop wars.
τῷ τὰ ζῷα θύειν, οἱ ἄνθρωποι τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπεπείκεσαν τοὺς πολέμους παύειν.
2. The young man has been well educated by the poet in order that his excellence may be guarded.
ὁ νεανίας εὖ πεπαίδευται τῷ ποιητῇ ἴνα ἡ ἀρετὴ (αὐτοῦ) φυλάττηται.
3. If you had been sent by the citizens to the island sacred to the goddess in order that the men in the country might be guarded, you would not have been stationed in the market place.
εἰ ἐπέμφθητε ὑπὸ τῶν πολιτῶν εἰς τὴν ἱερὰν νῆσον τὴν ἱερὰν τῆς θεοῦ ἵνα οἱ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ φυλάττοιντο (φυλαχθεῖεν), οὐκ ἂν ἐτάχθητε ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.
4. Men under the power of the bad are unjust.
ἄδικοι οἱ ὑπὸ τῷ κακῷ.