Unit 6 introduces the third declension nouns and various functions of the cases.
1. Third Declension Nouns (consonant stems);
2. Relative Pronoun;
3. Independent Subjunctive;
4. Partitive Genitive and the Genitive of time within which;
5. Dative of time at which;
6. Accusative of extent of time and space.
1. τῶν στρατιωτῶν πέντε παρὰ τὴν θάλατταν τάξει ὅπως οἱ ἓξ ἄγγελοι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ μὴ κωλυθῶσιν.
He will station five of the soldiers beside the sea in order that the six messengers may not be hindered by those in the plain.
2. τὰς μὲν ἀδίκους βλάψωμεν, ταῖς δὲ δικαίαις αἶγάς τε καὶ ἄργυρον πέμψωμεν.
Let us harm the unjust women, while to the just women let us send both goats and silver.
3. Ὅμηρος, οὗ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν οὐκ ἐφυλάχθησαν, νεανίας τε καὶ γέροντας τὴν λόγων τέχνην ἐδίδασκεν.
Homer, whose eyes were not guarded by the gods, used to teach both young and old men the art of speeches.
4. ἆρ’ αἶγες τοῖς θεοῖς ὑπό γε δούλων θύονται;
Are goats being sacrificed to the gods by slaves?
5. ἐὰν τοὺς γέροντας μετὰ φυλάκων πέντε στάδια πέμψητ΄ ἐκ τῆς γῆς, οὐ βλαβήσονται ὑπὸ τῶν κακῶν ξένων οἵ ἐκελεύσθησαν τὴν εἰρήνην λῦσαι.
If you send the old men with guards five stades out of the land, they will not be harmed by the bad strangers who were ordered to destroy the peace.
6. οὐκ ἐν σώματι ἀλλ΄ ἐν ψυχῇ ἥ γε χάρις ἡ τῶν ἀγαθῶν.
The grace of the good is not in (the) body but in (the) soul.
7. μετά γε τὴν νίκην οἱ μὲν φύλακες ἐχόρευον, οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι οὓς ἐβλάψαμεν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν ἀγορᾷ γερόντων ἐφυλάττοντο.
After the victory, the guards were dancing, while the enemy whom we harmed were being guarded by the old men in the market place.
8. εἰ ἡ χώρα εὖ ἐπολιτεύετο, ἤρχομεν ἂν καὶ τῶν νήσων.
If the land was being governed well, we would also be ruling the islands.
9. εἴ τοι τῆς χώρας ἄρχοιεν οἱ σόφοι, ἡμέρας μὲν ἂν πράττοιτε τὰ πράγματα τὰ τῆς τε βουλῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας, νυκτὸς δὲ χορεύοιτ΄ ἄν.
If, you know, the wise should rule the land, while during the day you would do the business of both the council and the assembly, during the night, you would dance.
10. οὔτοι ἱκανὸν ἔν γε μάχῃ ἡ νίκης ἐλπίς.
In a battle, at least, the hope of victory is not a sufficient thing, you know.
11. λύσωμεν δὴ τὴν δημοκρατίαν. δεινὰ γὰρ τῷ δήμῳ πέπρακται.
Let us, in fact, destroy the democracy. For terrible things have been done by the people.
12. εἰ τῇ πρώτῃ νυκτὶ ἓξ τῶν χορευτῶν εὖ ἐχόρευσαν, ζῷα τῇ θεῷ ἐτύθη ἂν ὑπὸ τῶν σοφῶν πολιτῶν. θεοῖς γὰρ φίλοι οἱ χοροί.
If on the first night six of the dancers had danced well, animals would have been sacrificed to the goddess by the wise citizens. For dancers are dear to gods.
13. οἱ νεανίαι οἷς γε βιβλία περὶ τῆς τῶν παλαιῶν ἐλευθερίας ὑφ΄ Ὁμήρου ἐγράφη εἰς μάχην πέντε ἡμερῶν ταχθήσονται τοῦ δήμου χάριν.
The young men, for whom at least books were written by Homer about the freedom of the ancients, will be stationed into battle within five days for the sake of the people.
14. δεινόν τοι ἡ τῆς ἀδίκου σοφία, ὦ γέρον.
The skill (wisdom) of the unjust woman is a terrible thing, you know, old man.
15. οἱ μὲν παλαιοὶ ὑπ΄ ἀγαθῶν ἤρχοντο, οἱ δὲ νῦν τοῖς τοῦ ἄρχειν ἀναξίοις δουλεύουσιν.
While the ancients used to be ruled by good men, the (people) of today are slaves to those unworthy of ruling.
16. οἱ μὲν ξένοι ἵππον ἔθυον πρὸ τῆς πολέμου ἀρχῆς, οἱ δ΄ Ἕλληνες οὔ.
While the strangers used to sacrifice a horse before the beginning of a war, the Greeks did not.
17. τῷ σώματι θάνατος ἡ μοῖρα, ἀλλ΄ ἥ γε ψυχὴ ἀθάνατος.
For the body, death is the fate, but the soul, at least, is immortal.
18. ὁ φύλαξ ὃς τῆς ἡμέρας εἰς τὴν νῆσον ἐπέμφθη τοὺς δούλους πέντε νύκτας ἐκώλυσε τὰς ἐλευθέρας βλάψαι.
The guard who was sent to the island during the day prevented the slaves for five nights from harming the free women.
19. δεινὰ τοῖς γε σοφοῖς τὰ τῆς θαλάττης.
To the wise, the things of the sea are terrible.
20. ὦ ἄδελφε, κακὰ δὴ τὰ δῶρα οἷς πείθεις Ἕλληνας ἐλευθέρους ξένοις κακοῖς δουλεύειν.
Brother, bad, in fact, are the bribes with which you are persuading free Greeks to be slaves to bad strangers.
21. ἐπειδὴ ὁ πόλεμός γε ἐπαύθη, ὁ τοῦ δήμου φόβος ἐλύθη.
Since (OR: after) the war was stopped, the people’s fear was dissolved.
22. κακός τοι ὁ ποιητὴς ᾧ γε βιβλία περὶ μικρῶν πραγμάτων γέγραπται.
The poet is bad, you know, because books about small matters have been written by him.
23. ὦ φίλε, μακροῖς λόγοις μὴ πείσῃς ἀγαθοὺς ἄδικά τε κακὰ πρᾶξαι.
Friend, do not persuade good men with long speeches to do unjust and bad things.
24. ἐὰν δίκαιοί γε πολιτεύωσιν, οἱ ἄδικοι, ὑφ΄ ὧν ὁ δῆμος βλάπτεται, ἐκ τῆς γῆς πέμπονται.
If [ever] just men govern, the unjust men, by whom the people are harmed, are sent out of the land.
25. βιβλίον γράψωμεν περὶ αἰγῶν ἐὰν οἱ πολῖται ἀργύριον πέμψωσιν;
Are we to write a book about goats if the citizens send money?
26. εἰ διδάσκοιο ὑπὸ ποιητῶν, ἀγαθῶν ἀνθρώπων, εὖ γ΄ ἔπραττες.
If [ever] you were taught by poets, by good men, you were faring well, at least.
27. δῶρον δὴ οὐ μικρὸν ἡ σοφία.
Wisdom is not a small gift, in fact.
28. κατά γε τὴν τοῦ γέροντος γνώμην κακοὶ οἱ σοφοί.
According, at least, to the opinion of the old man, the wise are bad.
29. ἄδικοι οἱ κατὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων λόγοι. καίτοι μακροὺς λόγους νυκτός καθ΄ Ἑλλήνων ἔγραφες.
The speeches against the Greeks are unjust. And yet, you used to write long speeches during the night against the Greeks.
1. Let us be taught during the day at least in order that we may dance during the night.
διδασκώμεθα τῆς γε ἡμέρας ἵνα χορεύωμεν τῆς νυκτός.
2. Young man, if you should rule the land for five days, would we be harmed by our enemies?
ὦ νεανία, εἰ τῆς χώρας πέντε ἡμέρας ἄρχοις, βλαπτοίμεθα (βλαβεῖμεν) ἂν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων;
3. Friend, do not bury the unjust men in the plain. The plain, you know, is sacred to the goddess by whom the land has been guarded.
ὦ φίλε, μὴ θάψῃς τοὺς ἀδίκους ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ. τὸ πεδίον τοι ἱερὸν τῆς θεοῦ ᾗ ἡ γῆ πεφύλακται.
4. If you (pl.) harm the horses which were sent to the soldiers, the war will be stopped within six days.
ἐὰν τοὺς ἵππους βλάψητε οἳ παρὰ τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπέμφθησαν, ἓξ ἡμερῶν ὁ πολέμος παυθήσεται.
5. The young men by whom the goats and horses will be sent into the market place are not willing to be educated by the wise poet.
οἱ νεανίαι ὑπὸ ὧν οἱ αἶγές τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι πεμφθήσονται εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν οὐκ ἐθέλουσι παιδεύεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ σοφοῦ ποιητοῦ.